This course covers the concepts of structured programming using C Programming language.
This course is designed to familiarize students to the techniques of programming in C.
Unit 1. Problem Solving with Computer 2 Hrs.
1.1 Problem analysis (requirement analysis, program design, program coding, program
testing, software installation and maintenance )
1.2 Algorithms and Flowchart (symbols start/stop, read/print, processing statement, condition
check, direction of flow, connectors)
1.3 Coding, Compilation and Execution (compiler, integrated development environment,
compiling and linking )
1.4 History of C,
1.5 Structure of C program (preprocessor directive, #include and #define directives, header
files and library files)
1.6 Debugging, Testing and Documentation (compiler error, linker error, and run-time error)
Unit 2. Elements of C 4 Hrs
2.1 C Standards( ANSI C and C99),
2.2 C Character Set (letters, digits, special characters and white spaces),
2.3 C Tokens (keywords, identifiers, operators, constants, and special symbols),
2.4 Escape sequence,
2.7 Data types (Basic, Derived, and User Defined),
2.8 Structure of a C program,
2.9 Executing a C program,
2.10 Constants/ Literals
2.11 Expressions, Statements and Comments.
Unit 3. Input and Output 2 Hrs.
3.1 Conversion specification,
3.2 Reading a character,
3.3 Writing a character,
3.4 I/O operations,
3.5 Formatted I/O
Unit 4. Operators and Expression 4 Hrs.
4.1 Arithmetic operator,
4.2 Relational operator,
4.3 Logical or Boolean operator,
4.4 Assignment Operator,
4.5 Ternary operator,
4.6 Bitwise operator,
4.7 Increment or Decrement operator,
4.8 Conditional operator,
4.9 Special Operators( sizeof and comma),
4.10 Evaluation of Expression (implicit and explicit type conversion),
4.11 Operator Precedence and Associativity.
Unit 5. Control Statement 4 Hrs.
5.1 Conditional Statements,
5.2 Decision Making and Branching (if, if else, nested if else, else if ladder, and switch
5.3 Decision Making and Looping (for, while, and do while loops)
5.4 Exit function,
5.5 Break and Continue.
Unit 6. Arrays 6 Hrs.
6.1 Introduction to Array,
6.2 Types of Array (Single Dimensional and Multidimensional),
6.3 Declaration and Memory Representation of Array,
6.4 Initialization of array
6.5 Character Array and Strings,
6.6 Reading and Writing Strings,
6.7 Null Character,
6.8 String Library Functions( string length, string copy, string concatenation, string compare)
Unit 7. Functions 5 Hrs.
7.1 Library Functions,
7.2 User defined functions,
7.3 Function prototype, Function call, and Function Definition,
7.4 Nested and Recursive Function,
7.5 Function Arguments and Return Types,
7.6 Passing Arrays to Function,
7.7 Passing Strings to Function,
7.8 Passing Arguments by Value, Passing Arguments by Address,
7.9 Scope visibility and lifetime of a variable, Local and Global Variable
Unit 8. Structure and Union 5 Hrs.
8.2 Array of structure,
8.3 Passing structure to function,
8.4 Passing array of structure to function,
8.5 Structure within structure ( Nested Structure),
8.7 Pointer to structure
Unit 9. Pointers 6 Hrs.
9.2 The & and * operator,
9.3 Declaration of pointer,
9.4 Chain of Pointers,
9.5 Pointer Arithmetic,
9.6 Pointers and Arrays,
9.7 Pointers and Character Strings,
9.8 Array of Pointers,
9.9 Pointers as Function Arguments
9.10 Function Returning pointers,
9.11 Pointers and Structures,
9.12 Dynamic Memory Allocation
Unit 10. File Handling in C 4 Hrs.
10.1 Concept of File,
10.2 Opening and closing of File (naming, opening, and closing a file)
10.3 Input Output Operations in File (reading data from file, writing data to a file)
10.4 Random access in File (ftell(), fseek(), rewind())
10.5 Error Handling in Files (feof(), ferror())
(Note: address some of the functions associated with file handling, e.g. fopen(), fclose(), fgetc(), fputc(), fprintf(),fscanf())
Unit 11. Introduction to Graphics 3 Hrs.
11.1 Concepts of Graphics (graphics.h header file)
11.2 Graphics Initialization and Modes (graphics driver and graphics mode)
11.3 Graphics Function (Basic functions of graphics.h e.g. line(), arc(), circle(), ellipse(), floodfill(), getmaxx(), getmaxy())
1. Byron Gottfried: “Programming with C,” , Second Edition, McGraw Hill Education.
2. Herbert Schildt, C The Complete Reference, Fourth Edition, Osborne/McGraw-Hill
1. Paul Deitel, Harvey Deitel, C: How to Program, Eighth Edition, Pearson Publication.
2. Al Kelley, Ira Pohl: “A Book on C”, Fourth Edition, Pearson Education.
3. Brian W. Keringhan, Dennis M. Ritchiem, The C programming Language, Second
Edition, PHI Publication.
4. Ajay Mittal, Programming in C: A Practical Approach, Pearson Publication
5. Stephen G. Kochan, Programming in C, CBS publishers & distributors.
6. E. Balagurusamy, Programming in ANSI C, Third Edition, TMH publishing
Details of Laboratory work in C programming
Laboratory Works: This is the first “programming” course in B.Sc.CSIT. It builds the foundation on how to write a program using any high level language. Hence, this course requires a lot of programming practice so that students will be able to develop good logic building and program developing capability which is essential throughout the B.Sc.CSIT course and thereafter. 20% of the total marks is assigned from the practical. Some important contents that should be included in lab exercises are as follows:
Unit 1: 2 Hrs.
Create, compile, debug, run and test simple C programs
Unit 2,3,4: 5 Hrs.
Using different data types available in C, perform arithmetic operations in C, perform formatted input/output operations, perform character input/output operations.
Using relational operator, logical operator, assignment operator, ternary operator, and other operators. Evaluation of Expression to check operator precedence and associativity.
Unit 5: 6 Hrs.
Create decision making programs using control statements like; if, if..else, if..else ladder, nested if, and switch cases.
Create programs using loops (for, while, do while, nested loops) and realize the differences between entry controlled and exit controlled loops.
Unit 6: 6 Hrs.
Create, manipulate arrays and matrices (single and multi-dimensional), work with pointers, dynamically allocate/de-allocate storage space during runtime, manipulate strings (character arrays) using various string handling functions.
Unit 7: 6 Hrs.
Create user-defined functions with/without parameters or return type, create recursive functions, use function call by value and call by address, work with automatic, global and static variables.
Unit 8: 5 Hrs.
Create and use simple structures, array of structures, nested structure. Passing structure and array of structure to function, concept of pointer to structure.
Unit 9: 6 Hrs.
Create programs that addresses pointer arithmetic, pointers and arrays, pointer and character strings, pointers and functions, pointer and structure, and dynamic memory allocation.
Unit 10: 5 Hrs.
Create files that address random access and input/output operations in file, create files to keep records and manipulation of records etc.
Unit 11: 4 Hrs.
Create graphics program that address some basic functions of graphics.h header file, e.g. line(), arc(), circle(), ellipse(), floodfill(), getmaxx(), getmaxy() etc.
Note: Motivate students to create small project work integrating all of the above concepts.
Long Answer Questions
Attempt any 2 questions. [2*10=20]
1. Define function and list its advantages. Describe the difference between passing arguments by value
and passing arguments by address with suitable program. [4+6]
2. Explain how structure is different from union? Make a program using structure of booklist having data
member‟s title, author, and cost. Enter four data and calculate total cost. [3+4+3]
3. Explain various modes in which file can be opened? Write a program to CREATE and WRITE N
numbers in a file “NUMBER.TXT”. Open this file then read its content and put all even numbers in
one file “EVEN.TXT” and odd numbers in another file “ODD.TXT”. [2+4+4]
Short Answer Questions
Attempt any 8 questions. [8*5=40]
4. What do you mean by a problem analysis? What are the properties of a good algorithm? Explain the
Compilation and Execution of any C program? [1+1+3]5. Define nested if else statement with suitable flowchart. Write a C code to check if user given input is exactly divisible by 5 or 11 using nested if else statement? [2+3]
6. List various binary and unary operators used in C? Write a program that uses a “while” loop to compute and prints the sum of a given numbers of squares. For example, if 4 is input, then the program will print 30, which is equal to 12+22+32+42. [1+4]
7. “Size of character array is always declared one more than the input size.” Justify the statement. Write a
program to read a character array input as “TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY” from the user and find out
how many times a character „I‟ occurs in that array? [1+4]
8. Write syntax to declare and initialize 2-dimensional array? With suitable program logic explain how
would you find transpose of a 3*3 matrix? [1+4]
9. Explain the concept of recursive function using the example program to find the factorial of given
positive integer. 
10. Describe the fundamental concept of pointer and its arithmetic with suitable examples. 
11. Explain the use of graphical functions. Write a program to draw a triangle using line() graphics
12. Write short notes on: [2+3]
i) Dynamic Memory Allocation
ii) break and continue